News from Project A04 (2022-2025)

"Global developments in health care systems"

The project "Global developments in health care systems" is looking for new student assistants (up to 37 hours/month).

At the University of Bremen, the following positions are available in the Collaborative Research Centre 1342's project "Global developments in health care systems":

Student Assistants with up to 37 hrs/month

Start date: 01.03.2024 / as soon as possible. The position is temporary, but a longer-term employment is intended.

The project is a part of the DFG-funded Collaborative Research Centre 1342 "Global Dynamics of Social Policy" and is directed by Prof. Dr. Heinz Rothgang, Prof. Dr. Sebastian Haunss and Dr. Lorraine Frisina Doetter.

The aim of the project is to map the historical development of the inclusiveness and scope of benefits of health care systems worldwide. In doing so, we analyse and annotate documents of health care legislation. Based on the manual analysis we are creating a training data set to fine-tune AI language models to support data collection in this field on different levels of text classification.


  • Database and literature research
  • Annotating of legal documents
  • Supporting on administrative tasks



  • Enrolled in a German University at least until July 2024
  • Excellent command of English
  • Experience in qualitative text analysis
  • Independent, reliable and organised working style
  • Interest in global social policy / health policy legislation



  • Experience with reference management software, especially Zotero
  • Experience in coding of text documents


Deadline for application: 26.01.2024 (afterwards, rolling basis until positions are filled.)

Please send applications with CV and short letter of motivation stating expected graduation date to Alexander Polte (

Alexander Polte
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy
Mary-Somerville-Straße 7
28359 Bremen
Phone: +49 421 218-57063

Hüma Nauroozi, Dr. Achim Schmid and Ed Miller, PhD
Hüma Nauroozi, Dr. Achim Schmid and Ed Miller, PhD
Interview with Achim Schmid, postdoctoral researcher, Hüma Nauroozi and Ed Miller, both interns in project A04 “Global Developments in Health Care Systems”

In the framework of their mandatory internships Hüma and Ed are part of the project A04 from October to December, 2023. Hüma Nauroozi is a Bachelor student of Public Health in the 5th semester. Ed Miller is a Master student of "Sozialpolitik" (Political Science) in the 3rd semester.

Could you give us a brief overview of what the A04 project is all about?

Achim Schmid: The project pursues three research goals: first, to describe the evolution of healthcare system generosity, its inclusiveness and scope of benefits, worldwide, from its inception to the present; second, to identify and explain the temporal and spatial patterns of inclusion and benefit dynamics; and third, to explore the role of specific causal mechanisms and to explain the findings of the project’s first phase concerning the timing and emergence of specific healthcare system types in select African countries.

Currently, the main focus lies on the measurement and portrait of inclusiveness ("Which social groups are covered by the healthcare system?") and scope of benefits ("What kind of benefits are covered?") based on healthcare legislation. After the manual annotation of selected documents, we plan to use AI-learning models to extract generosity information. The information will contribute to the Welfare State Information System (WeSIS) of the CRC.

What are your academic interests and what tasks do you have in the project?

Hüma Nauroozi: I am studying Public Health at the University of Bremen in the 5th semester and I am currently looking for a topic for my bachelor thesis. My research interests relate primarily to qualitative and quantitative empirical research of health care systems in a global context. My main tasks include data collection and analysis of health legislation as well as preparing a country brief on the Rwandan healthcare system with its own peculiarities.

Ed Miller: I am a retired Army Officer with a PhD in Public Policy from the University of Maryland. Previously, I was a consultant at Booz Allen Hamilton Inc. At present, I am doing a Double Degree Master Program in Political Science/Sozialpolitik at the University of North Carolina and the University of Bremen. As part of my internship, I focus on the complex healthcare system of the United States of America. In this regard, I examine legal texts and laws.

Two months behind and one month ahead: How do you look back on your internship here at the CRC 1342?

Ed Miller: We appreciate that we have the opportunity to make a real contribution to research of the CRC 1342. In our team, we have the feeling that we work on an equal footing with our colleagues. We are very pleased that the results of our work are to be published at the end of our internship.

Hüma Nauroozi: A personal highlight for me was the Africa workshop organized by Julian Götsch and Lorraine Frisina-Doetter in November. The discussions and meeting experts on Kenya and Nigeria, some of whose work I had previously only read in class, was a great experience for me and I learned a lot.

Achim Schmid: We are very happy about Hüma’s and Ed’s contribution to our project and of course we hope that they can also profit from their research experience.

Dr. Achim Schmid
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy
Mary-Somerville-Straße 3
28359 Bremen
Phone: +49 421 218-58526

A04 workshop from November 1 to 3, 2023, at Haus der Wissenschaft in Bremen

The workshop "Exploring healthcare system introductions and historical developments in Kenya and Nigeria within the context of nation-building and post-colonialism" of the project A04 "Global Developments in Healthcare Systems" took place from 1.11.2023 to 3.11.2023 at the Haus der Wissenschaft, Bremen, and was organized by Lorraine Frisina-Doetter and Julian Götsch.

The aim of the workshop was to bring together leading experts on the historical development and current design of healthcare systems in Nigeria and Kenya. The focus was on the influence of colonialism and nation-building on the introduction and subsequent reforms of the healthcare systems in the two countries. Philip Aka (International University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina), Mario Azevedo (Jackson State University, USA), Joseph Balogun (Chicago State University, USA), Diana Cassells (Purchase College, New York, USA), Pascal Grosse (Charité Berlin, Germany), Daniel Künzler (University of Fribourg, Switzerland), Rebecca Martin (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK), George Ndege (Saint Louis University, USA) and Friday Okonofua (University of Benin, Nigeria) participated in the workshop as experts on the historical development of the healthcare systems in Kenya and Nigeria.

After an introduction and welcome speech by Heinz Rothgang of the A04 project, the workshop opened with a presentation by Mario Azevedo on the impact of colonialism on health systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Followed by presentations and subsequent discussions of the A04 project's work by Lorraine Frisina Doetter and Sebastian Haunss, the first day concluded with an extensive and critical roundtable discussion on the utility and the limitations of the concept of nation-building in the post-colonial context of sub-Saharan Africa. From the very beginning, the workshop was characterized by lively discussions and intensive exchange, which characterized it until the end.

The following days were dedicated to the historical developments of the healthcare systems in Nigeria and Kenya. In their presentations on Nigeria Joseph Balogun, Friday Okonofua, Rebecca Martin, Diana Cassells and Philip Aka highlighted different perspectives on the evolution of the healthcare system. They shed light on the historical development of health professions, the evolution of health services and the collaboration of different actors during colonialism, the impact of the Coloniality of Sovereignty and the continuing British influence on healthcare in Nigeria today. In their presentations on Kenya, George Ndege and Daniel Künzler focused on the institutional continuities of the healthcare system from colonialism until today, discussed the history of health reforms in the country and analyzed the political rhetoric that accompanies them. The workshop ended with Pascal Grosse's presentation on the connection of Public Health and colonialism in Sub-Saharan Africa today.

The workshop contributed to an intensive exchange among the participants by sharing expertise and different perspectives on the two countries. Furthermore, two focus group discussions that were conducted during the last day will contribute to the work on a comparative case study of the developments of the healthcare system in the two countries. Beyond the scope of the workshop, the possibility of a long-term exchange within the group and a joint publication was discussed.

Dr. Lorraine Frisina Doetter
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy
Mary-Somerville-Straße 3
28359 Bremen
Phone: +49 421 218-58561

Julian Götsch
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy
Mary-Somerville-Straße 5
28359 Bremen
Phone: +49 421 218-58540