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Prof Dr Tao Liu
Prof Dr Tao Liu
In a brief interview, the co-director of project B05 explains the advantages of the distinction from the top Chinese university for the CRC 1342.

You have been recently honored as a Distinguished Professor by the Zhejiang University - congratulations! In which department is the professorship located?
At the School of Public Affairs. The distinction is limited to three years: from December 2018 to December 2021.

How important is Zhejiang University in China and internationally?
Zhejiang University is one of the top universities in China. It currently ranks third behind Beijing University and Tsinghua University. In the QS World University Ranking, Zhejiang University is currently in 68th place. For comparison: the Technical University of Munich is in 61st place in this ranking.

Will you be at Zhejiang University more often now?
I will visit Zhejiang University every year and give a series of lectures on social policy.

What practical advantages does this distinction have for you personally as a scientist and for the CRC?
I am now a formal member of Zhejiang University, I have a university card and I can use the entire infrastructure: from the cafeteria to the library. Equally important is the contact and access to scientists, especially to important social policy researchers. In the long run, the Distinguished Professor status will greatly facilitate our social policy research in the Yangtze Delta region and our access to regional and subnational social policy data.


Contact:
Prof. Dr. Tao Liu
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy, Institute of Sociology
Forsthausweg 2
47057 Duisburg
Phone: +49 203 379-3747
E-Mail: tao.liu@uni-due.de

Tao Liu and Tobias ten Brink, who are jointly directing project B05, have published a special issue of the "Journal of Chinese Governance". The six articles of the issue examine China's social policy from an international, comparative perspective.

Liu and ten Brink argue in their introduction that the expansion of social policy in China in recent decades has been influenced and facilitated by international and supranational influences. Liu elaborates on this in his contribution "Epistemological globalization and the shaping of social policy in China". According to Liu and ten Brink, the logic of Chinese social reforms cannot be understood if these external factors are not taken into account. How exactly the transfer of knowledge and ideas between countries of the Global North and China has taken place and how concepts have been taken up, adopted or modified, however, requires further investigation.

Liu's an ten Brinks introduction to the special issue is available online.


Contact:
Prof. Dr. Tao Liu
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy, Institute of Sociology
Forsthausweg 2
47057 Duisburg
Phone: +49 203 379-3747
E-Mail: tao.liu@uni-due.de

Prof. Dr. Tobias ten Brink
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy, Research IV and China Global Center
Campus Ring 1
28759 Bremen
Phone: +49 421 200-3382
E-Mail: t.tenbrink@jacobs-university.de

Irene Dingeldey and Jean-Yves Gerlitz in Geneva.
Irene Dingeldey and Jean-Yves Gerlitz in Geneva.
Members of project A03 discussed their research on the regulation of labour standards and their segmentation effect with experts of the International Labour Organization.

Project A03 was on a research visit to the International Labour Organisation (ILO) in Geneva from 3 to 7 December, represented by Dr. Heiner Fechner, Jean-Yves Gerlitz, Jenny Hahs and PD Dr. Irene Dingeldey. The ILO tries to implement minimum standards of labour regulation and health and safety in all countries of the world. In order to support this, the ILO is collecting relevant data worldwide and is pushing ahead with a wide range of studies and research tasks relating to the topic of labour. The ILO is thus an important partner organisation of CRC 1342 and in particular of project A03 "Worlds of Labour".

The research of project A03 on the regulation of labour standards and their segmentation effect was discussed with experts from the ILO's own research department (RESEARCH), the International Labour Standards Department (NORMES), the Labour Law and Reform Department (LABOUR LAW) and the Statistics Department (STATISTICS). Both the assumptions on the segmentation effect of legal norms and the planned analysis of the influence of colonial relations on the development of specific regulatory patterns met with great interest. The segmentation-effective influence of ILO instruments was also reflected. The use of leximetrics as a method for the analysis of labour regulations was commented both supportively and critically.

The ILO offered opportunities for cooperation both in terms of methodology and content. Very important: The exchange of data with the project and the database "WeSIS" planned by CRC 1342 is also welcomed. The exchange with the various departments is to be intensified in the future.

A first date will be the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the ILO in June 2019. At the large symposium "Globalization and Social Justice: A Century of ILO Action, 1919 - 2019", which takes place at the University Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne in Paris, project A03 will be represented with a contribution by Prof. Dr. Ulrich Mückenberger.


Contact:
PD Dr. Irene Dingeldey
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy, Institute Labour and Economy
Wiener Straße 9 / Ecke Celsiusstraße
28359 Bremen
Phone: +49 421 218-61710
E-Mail: dingeldey@uni-bremen.de

Prof. Dr. Ulrich Mückenberger
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy, Faculty of Law
Universitätsallee, GW1
28359 Bremen
Phone: +49 421 218-66218
E-Mail: mueckenb@uni-bremen.de

Dr. Sanen Marshall
Dr. Sanen Marshall
Dr. Sanen Marshall from the University of Malaysia Sabah reported at CRC 1342 that liberal universities of Malaysia exist in an environment characterised by the growing influence of Islamic organisations on science and education.

Sanen Marshall said at the beginning of his lecture that Malaysia's university landscape can be divided into universities that profess to islamise knowledge, and those that promote liberal education. According to Marshall, universities promoting liberal education have committed themselves to free, critical science, while the universities promoting the islamisation of knowledge always ask whether research and teaching contents are consistent with the principles of the Islamic faith.

The Organization for Islamic Cooperation and individual Islamic countries like Saudi Arabia have supported the setting up of Islamic universities in Malaysia in the 1980s and even more recently, Marshall reported. For a long time both forms of higher education coexisted, but since the mid-2000s there has been a decline of sorts for the liberal education systems in one or two universities, Marshall said: "The attack on liberal ideas began in the 2000s". At the same time, Islamic ideas and principles have had a growing influence on Malaysia's education system: One school history textbook, for example, teaches without evidence about jihad in Malaysia’s anti-colonial history while valourising Turkey as a historical model for the Islamic world. The translation into Malay of Charles Darwin's book is banned in Malaysia. "Many young students", Marshall said, "are hardly prepared to deal with content critically and freely any more".

At one university which has a liberal education programme, the growth of professorships and lecturing positions has been stagnating in favour of technical and applied courses of study, Marshall reported. This is an indicator that applicable knowledge and skills enjoy a high reputation in Malaysia's education system as well as in its society.

With his lecture, Sanen Marshalls provided an interesting input for the Collaborative Research Centre 1342: Not only global and western international organisations may have a significant influence on the educational and social policies of nation states, but also religious organisations such as the Organisation for Islamic Cooperation.


Contact:
Prof. Dr. Kerstin Martens
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy, Institute for Intercultural and International Studies
Mary-Somerville-Straße 7
28359 Bremen
Phone: +49 421 218-67498
E-Mail: martensk@uni-bremen.de

Franziska Deeg and Leticia Juarez
Franziska Deeg and Leticia Juarez
Franziska Deeg spent two months in Mexico City for project B03 in order to coordinate the final preparations and the conduct of the interviews on site.

In the Cologne part of project B03, two surveys will be conducted - one in Mexico and one in Brazil - in order to gain insights into the connection between trade and social policy at the micro level. The first survey in Mexico was completed on 21 November: a milestone for the B03 project team. Since June, the study has been prepared in Cologne and finally implemented from September to November by PhD student Franziska Deeg on site and with the active support of the Cologne team. The time on site in Mexico City was particularly labour-intensive, as the questionnaire still had to be translated and the pre-tests had to be completed. In addition, interviewer trainings were conducted.

For the preparation and final implementation of the survey, there was a lively exchange between Ms. Deeg and Beltran, Juarez y Asociados (BGC), the public opinion research institute commissioned to collect the data. Special attention was paid to a conceptually correct translation of the questionnaire, which was also adapted to the Mexican case on social policy. This was a particular challenge as the social system in Mexico is highly fragmented. It was also possible for the team to conduct 60 pre-test interviews in the two countries selected for the study (Puebla and Queretaro). This allowed initial insights into the data to be gained and the questionnaire to be further adapted. The main focus here was on the comprehensibility of the questions, and especially the questions on social policy could be further improved by the experience gained in the pre-test.

Before the final data collection, the questionnaire was thoroughly reviewed in a training session with all interviewers. Through the training, interviewer effects could be greatly reduced and special features of the survey could be addressed, such as the conjoint.

Franziska Deeg was able to combine her stay in Mexico City with a research visit to the Colegio de Mexico (Colmex), one of the best universities in Latin America. She was able to benefit from the university's rich lecture programme, learn more about the numerous research activities at Colmex and collaborate with Dr. Melina Altamirano, who strongly supported the implementation of the study with her know-how.

Thanks to the efficient work of the entire team and the seven-week stay in MExiko, the survey was successfully implemented. The data is now available and ready for analysis.


Contact:
Franziska Deeg
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy, Cologne Center for Comparative Politics
Herbert-Lewin-Str. 2
50931 Köln
Phone: +49 221 470-2853
E-Mail: fdeeg@uni-koeln.de

Greta-Marleen Storath, Kristin Noack and Marlene Seiffarth
Greta-Marleen Storath, Kristin Noack and Marlene Seiffarth
As part of the "Science goes public!" event series, the PhD students Kristin Noack, Marlene Seiffarth and Greta-Marleen Storath presented their CRC project B07 in a pub in Bremen.

What happens to nonna in Italy, mormor in Sweden and Oma in Germany when they can no longer manage their everyday lives on their own? About 50 guests had come to the Bremen pub Gondi on Thursday evening to let Kristin Noack, Marlene Seiffarth and Greta-Marleen Storath explain to them the surprisingly different long-term care systems of the three countries.

While most of the guests were familiar with the German long-term care insurance (Pflegeversicherung), they learned over salt sticks, beer and wine that the Swedish long-term care is tax-funded and that the vast majority of elderly people prefer to be cared for by state nursing staff rather than by family members. The nursing profession has a fairly good reputation in Sweden and is better paid than in Germany, Storath reported. In Italy, on the other hand, people in need of long-term care are predominantly cared for by family members, mostly women, Seiffarth said. The families receive non-specific direct payments from the state, which in the middle and upper classes are used to pay migrant 24-hour nursing staff.

The guests were very focused while following the presentations and asked a number of questions, including the repercussions of the migration of nursing staff on their countries of origin, especially Eastern and South-Eastern Europe.

Kristin Noack, Marlene Seiffarth and Greta-Marleen Storath are working on their PhDs theses within the framework of the CRC project B07 "Transnational service provision in long-term care in Western and Eastern Europe", in which the countries Germany, Italy and Sweden as well as Poland, Romania and the Ukraine are examined and compared in case studies.

The "Science goes public!" event series takes place twice a year in Bremen and Bremerhaven and gives scientists the opportunity to present their work in a relaxed setting and to talk to citizens.


Contact:
Kristin Noack
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy
Mary-Somerville-Straße 7
28359 Bremen
Phone: +49 421 218-58604
E-Mail: knoack@uni-bremen.de

Marlene Seiffarth
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy
Mary-Somerville-Straße 7
28359 Bremen
Phone: +49 421 218-58600
E-Mail: m.seiffarth@uni-bremen.de

Greta-Marleen Storath
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy
Mary-Somerville-Straße 7
28359 Bremen
Phone: +49 421 218-57068
E-Mail: gm.storath@uni-bremen.de

Prof. Dr. Kiran Klaus Patel
Prof. Dr. Kiran Klaus Patel
Kiran Klaus Patel, Professor of European and Global History at Maastricht University, discusses his book "The New Deal: A Global History" with members of the CRC 1342.

Two years have passed since Kiran Klaus Patel, Professor of European and Global History at Maastricht University, published his book "The New Deal: A Global History". Nevertheless, Patel was happy to discuss it with members of the CRC 1342 on Wednesday. To look at one's own work after a certain time and at how it was received by colleagues is very revealing, Patel said.

So what is Patel's book about, which is said to have originated in an evening in a Zurich bar where Sven Beckert ("Empire of Cotton") and Kiran Klaus Patel sat, drank, discussed, and at the end of the day Patel went home with the idea of critically examining the myth of the New Deal for a book series published by Beckert? "The goal was to write American history differently," says Patel today, "to provide an alternative to traditional historiography." The New Deal, which was embedded in time between the global events of the Great Depression and the Second World War ("sandwiched between", as Patel so beautifully called it), is traditionally interpreted in the USA as a purely nation-state affair. In his book, Patel shows that the USA, with its economic and social reforms, is by no means an exception or even autonomous. There were very similar developments in many other countries at the time: "And with the New Deal the US was pretty much in the centre of the spectrum of political options," says Patel. Thus, the New Deal was by no means unique, but despite its mediocrity it was a game changer that laid the foundation for the leadership and international dominance of the US in the post-war period, Patel said.

The New Deal was not a stand-alone work of Roosevelt's government, but was created under the influence of international relations, which Patel documents in his book. Many scientists who advised the US government had previously studied in Europe. In addition, social policy experts from Europe were invited to present their views and experiences. Among them were scientists, especially from Sweden, who had previously studied in the USA and thus knew exactly how to successfully sell their ideas in Washington.

Of course, the USA did not completely take over the social and economic policy programmes of other countries: they chose elements that they considered appropriate from the portfolio of social policy options ("selective adaptation"). The result was the Social Security Act in the United States, which mainly addressed white male workers - much like in most European states.

After Patel had presented the most important arguments of his book, the question arose as to why the US had adopted certain social and economic policy elements, especially from Europe, but not promising variants from other regions of the world (e.g. Latin America and Japan). Patel explains this mainly with two arguments: On the one hand, existing, established links and networks of actors from politics and science had played an important role; on the other hand, the perception of kinship between the USA and Europe had played a major role, which also had racist elements: the decision-makers lived in a white, Eurocentric world.

At the time, the USA was not afraid to examine dictatorships including Nazi Germany for suitable social and economic programs. Patel explains this with the then widespread modernist assumption that political programs and instruments could be separated from the ideology of a state.

Patel was asked why he did not or only to a limited extent consider the question of power in his analysis of the New Deal. Patel replied that he had deliberately done so because otherwise the international relations and influences on the New Deal, which form the core of his book, would not have been given enough space.

Two years after the book was published, Patel self-critically noted that his book did not explain the New Deal and its origins in an exhaustive and comprehensive way. The quantitative dimension of the analysis is not sufficient, he said, and not only the New Deal itself but also Patel's own work has a European bias: Asian influences, for example, could be given much greater consideration, as could the role of local administrations and US states.

Some impressions from our "International Conference on Global Dynamics of Social Policy" on 25 and 26 October 2018 in Bremen.

The gallery with photos from the two conference days can be found on the Flickr page of the CRC 1342.


Contact:
Philipp Jarke
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy
Mary-Somerville-Straße 7
28359 Bremen
Phone: +49 421 218-58573
E-Mail: pjarke@uni-bremen.de

Prof. Armando Barrientos giving his keynote speech.
Prof. Armando Barrientos giving his keynote speech.
170 scholars from 35 nations met at the first conference of the Collaborative Research Centre 1342 "Global Dynamics of Social Policy" at the University of Bremen.

Worldwide there is an unimaginably large variety of social policy programmes with different scopes, levels of generousity and sources of financing. And this socio-political cosmos is constantly on the move. In their 85 presentations and three keynote speeches at the CRC 1342 conference, the participants addressed the question of how the interplay of domestic and international influences determines social policy worldwide. Leading international researchers presented their hypotheses and findings, including Prof. Armando Barrientos of the University of Manchester, Prof. Nicola Yeates of the Open University and Prof. Mitchell Orenstein of the University of Pennsylvania.

Barrientos showed in his speech that in low and middle income countries, spending on social assistance has increased significantly for some time now. According to Barrientos, classical theories of the welfare state do not provide a conclusive explanation for this development.
Yeates emphasised in her keynote that the scientific analysis of social policy should keep a close eye on its history, while Orenstein outlined his plan to develop a Social Impact of Transition Index to measure and compare the social consequences of the transition from a centrally planned to a market economy in the post-Soviet region.

This conference was a first milestone for the Collaborative Research Centre "Global Dynamics of Social Policy", whose central aim is to develop the Global Welfare State Information System (WeSIS): an interactive global social policy atlas with which the development of social policy can be analysed and visualised - from 1880 to the present day and at any scale. In a few years, the Global Social Policy Atlas WeSIS will be made available free of charge not only to academics but also to the general public.

The conference was characterised by an extremely cooperative working atmosphere in which the speakers received constructive feedback on their papers and presentations. On the evening of the first day of the conference, the participants were also received in the Bremeische Bürgerschaft by Prof. Dr. Eva Quante-Brandt, Senator of Science of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen.

Further information
Download the detailed conference programme.


Contact:
Philipp Jarke
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy
Mary-Somerville-Straße 7
28359 Bremen
Phone: +49 421 218-58573
E-Mail: pjarke@uni-bremen.de

Alex Nadège Ouedraogo, doctoral researcher in project B09, spent four weeks in Senegal. In two different regions, Dakar and Casamance, she explored the topic of her thesis: social policy related to food security.

Nadège, you have recently returned from a research trip. Where have you been?

I was at Dakar and I visited Ziguinchor, a city in the south of Senegal, that has seen conflicts for several years but now everything seems to be calm.

What was the purpose of your trip?

During the first week, I took part in a summer school in Dakar that was organised by the Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa (CODESRIA) and the Centre for African Studies Basel (CASB). The theme was: "African Studies and Africanists: Whence the Gaze?". As my parents are from Burkina Faso, I've been interested in working with Africans scholars and in Africa. It was interesting to be surrounded by other PhD students from the African continent. I learned a lot about doing a PhD and doing research in Africa. Well, and after that I stayed another week in Dakar collecting information to locate archives and networking. Then I travelled to the South during the third week to explore and learn about the region and came back to Dakar for the final week. These last three weeks of my trip were directly related to my PhD and the research within our B09 project while the first week was more about being a researcher in an African context.

What is you research about?

In our project B09 we are working on social policy in Africa, and in my case it's about social policy related to food security. My recent trip to Senegal helped me a lot to find a more particular and original angle from which to conduct my research.

How did this happen?

I did not make any appointments for any interviews before I started my research trip. I wanted to have first impressions of what's going on at the local level. I did not want to run into the government or NGOs straight away but rather meet and talk with the local population. That is what I did.

Could you already gather information or data that you can use for your research?

Not actually data. But I now know in which direction I want to conduct my research. Speaking with many local people and sitting with them on the market helped me a lot. I also visited some households that I got introduced to. I discussed with these people what they think about social policy and what it means to them. I soon realised that most of them do not even use those terms. It doesn't make sense for them. Most of them use the term public policy. This preliminary research trip helped me to adopt a certain position and a certain vocabulary. I also realised that for the locals food security depends on access to food. Access not so much in financial terms but rather in terms of transportation and local availability. Most people told me that they would like to buy certain kind of food but cannot find it. Or that it is produced for export exclusively. It was interesting to discover that food security is closely related to transport infrastructure and spatial planning.

Which language did you speak with the local people?

I spoke French. But most people in Senegal speak Wolof which I don't speak. That made it a bit harder to make sure people understand me and vice versa. But most of the time I had someone local who helped interpreting when people did not speak much French. But I will do my best to learn basics of Wolof soon.

What are your next steps?

Now I have to write my thesis proposal. Thanks to this preliminary field trip and the readings, I had done before I should be fine. Now I have ideas of how I want to conduct my research and it's more grounded because I've been in the country.

Have you planned next trips already?

If my thesis proposal is approved, I hope I will be able to go back to Senegal for a longer period of time. Time is really a constraint. I cannot leave all my activities here in Bremen but it's really important for my ethnographic research approach to be in the country and to stay as long as possible.


Contact:
Alex Nadège Ouedraogo
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy, Institute for Intercultural and International Studies
Mary-Somerville-Straße 7
28359 Bremen
Phone: +49 176 73 96 96 90
E-Mail: ouedraogo@uni-bremen.de

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