News from Project B06

The Russian government has recently decided to raise the retirement age and VAT. CRC member Martin Brand analyses whether these decisions were necessary and what social disruptive force they could unfold.

Value-added tax in Russia is to rise from 18 to 20 percent. But it is above all the pension reform that moves people in Russia, writes Brand: The regular retirement age is to rise from 55 to 63 for women and from 60 to 65 for men. If you look at life expectancy, especially of Russian men (67.5 years), it is obvious that this reform is extremely unpopular: according to a survey, 92 percent of the population are against it. Protests are already taking place on online platforms and in the streets.

On the other hand, the reform seems inevitable: the pension fund is chronically in deficit, in 2018 the equivalent of 17.7 billion euros will be missing, 40 percent of revenues will come from the state budget. "This tension between economic and social factors," writes Brand, "builds the background of the debate about Russia's pension system reform - at the latest after the World Cup". 

Further information:
The detailed article for the Federal Agency for Civic Education


Contact:
Martin Brand
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy, Research Centre for East European Studies
Klagenfurter Straße 8
28359 Bremen
Phone: +49 421 218-
E-Mail: martin.brand@uni-bremen.de

Caucasus Analytical Digest No. 103
Caucasus Analytical Digest No. 103
Gulnaz Isabekova published her account of Armenia’s, Azerbaijan’s and Georgia’s healthcare systems in Caucasus Analytical Digest: Healthcare professionals move from rural to urban areas, limiting the rural population’s access to health care services.

Rural areas in the Southern Caucasus region suffer from a growing shortage of healthcare professionals, Gulnaz Isabekova of CRC 1342 describes in an article recently published in Caucasus Analytical Digest #103. Doctors, mid-level professionals and midwifes move to urban areas or migrate to Post-Soviet countries where they seek and find higher salaries, better working conditions and professional development opportunities. The uneven distribution of healthcare workers jeopardizes the rural healthcare systems and the quality of the services.

Isabekova describes a mismatch between the large number of medical school graduates and the number of vacant positions in rural areas. The governments of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia should create stronger incentives for healthcare professionals to work in rural areas. According to Isabekova potential incentives include faster promotion tracks, extra training, fellowships, grants and bonuses to salaries. Also the number of mid-level professionals needs to be increased and their training should be strengthened. This may ensure at least access to basic services.


Further information:

Gulnaz Isabekova (ed.) (2018): Access to Healthcare, Caucasus Analytical Digest No. 103

Gulnaz Isabekova (2018): Healthcare Workers in the Southern Caucasus: Availability, Migration and Patients’ Access to Healthcare, in: Caucasus Analytical Digest No. 103, pp. 6-17, DOI: 10.3929/ethz-b-000269801

The publication is available online.


Contact:
Gulnaz Isabekova
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy, Research Centre for East European Studies
Klagenfurter Straße 8
28359 Bremen
Phone: +49 421 218-57073
E-Mail: gulnaz@uni-bremen.de

Oleksandra Betliy, external country expert of the SFB 1342, has published her analysis of the Ukrainian pension reform in Ukraine-Analysen. Betliy concludes that further reforms of the judicial and financial systems are necessary.

The average pension in Ukraine is one of the lowest in Europe, while state pension obligations are very high in relation to GDP. In the past 15 years there have been several reforms of the deficient Ukrainian pension system, the most recent in October 2017.

Oleksandra Betliy works as an external country expert for the CRC "Global Dynamics of Social Policy" and has analysed the pension reforms in Ukraine. She has published her results in the current issue of Ukraine-Analysen. She concludes that the reform approaches are promising, but that long-term success will depend on economic growth and reforms of the judicial and financial market systems.

Oleksandra Betliy has been a Leading Research Fellow at the Institute for Economic Research and Policy Consulting in Kiev since 2002. Her research interests include fiscal policy and tax forecasts as well as social issues, including health and labour market policy. As a country expert at the CRC 1342, she cooperates primarily with project B06 "External reform models and internal debates on the new conceptualisation of social policy in the post-Soviet region".

The Ukraine-Analysen are published jointly by the Research Centre for East European Studies at the University of Bremen, the Centre for East European and International Studies, the German Association for East European Studies, the German Poland Institute, the Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies and the Leibniz Institute for East and Southeast European Studies.


Contact:
Prof. Dr. Heiko Pleines
CRC 1342: Global Dynamics of Social Policy, Research Centre for East European Studies
Klagenfurter Straße 8
28359 Bremen
Phone: +49 421 218-69602
E-Mail: pleines@uni-bremen.de